Observations of the Red Planet indicate that rivers and oceans may have been prominent features in its early history.
Once a time,Mars could supprted microbial life,like the Earth,with less gravity and a thinner atmosphere because Mars was a warm and wet planet.When its evaporated,liquid escaped into space and less fall back to the surface of the planet.
The water was founded trapped within the ice caps at the poles of the planet.In the summer,the liquid turn into gas,because of the increasing temperature,and in winter,lower temperatures cause them to grow to latitudes as low as 45 degrees.
CAPS OF WATER
These caps of frozen water are 3 kilometres average thick and could cover the Mars surface’s with 5.6 metres of water.
Liquid water appears to flow from some steep, relatively warm slopes on the Martian surface. Researchers studying images taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) noticed dark streaks that appear during warm weather but fade away when temperatures drop. Spectral analysis of these streaks, called recurring slope linae (RSL), lead scientists to conclude they are caused by salty liquid water.
More water may be frozen just beneath the surface, covered by the dry red dust that blankets the planet, scientists say. Some high-latitude regions seem to boast patterned ground-shapes that may have formed as permafrost in the soil freezes and thaws over time. The European Space Agency’s Mars Express spacecraft captured images of sheets of ice in the cooler, shadowed bottoms of craters
LIQUID IS GOLD
Water may seem like a very common element to those of us stuck on Earth, but it has great value. In addition to understanding how Mars may have changed and developed over time, scientists hope that finding water will help them to find something even more valuable — life, either past or present.
Only Earth is known to host life, and life on our planet requires water. Though life could conceivably evolve without relying on this precious liquid, scientists can only work with what they know. Thus they hope that locating water on celestial bodies such as Mars will lead to finding evidence for life.
With this in mind, NASA developed a strategy for exploring the Red Planet that takes as its mantra “follow the water.” Recent orbiters, landers and rovers sent to Mars were designed to search for water, rather than life, in the hopes of finding environments where life could have thrived.
That has changed, however, with the flood of evidence these robots have returned. Curiosity determined that Mars could indeed have supported microbial life in the ancient past, and the next NASA rover — a car-size robot based heavily on Curiosity’s basic design — will blast off in 2020 to look for evidence of past Red Planet life.
Adrián Marín Martín & César Martín Rodríguez.