Accidente de Chernóbil

El accidente de Chernóbil fue un accidente nuclear sucedido el sábado 26 de abril de 1986. Considerado, junto con el accidente nuclear de Fukushima I en Japón de 2011, como el más grave en la Escala Internacional de Accidentes Nucleares (accidente mayor, nivel 7), constituye uno de los mayores desastres medioambientales de la historia.

El accidente fue producido durante una prueba en la que se simulaba un corte de suministro eléctrico, un aumento súbito de potencia en el reactor 4 de esta central nuclear produjo el sobrecalentamiento del núcleo del reactor nuclear, lo que terminó provocando la explosión.

Particularmente, creo que el accidente fue causado por la obsolescencia y la falta de precaución por parte de la lentitud del sistema burocrático ruso y la falta de previsión, ya que no se tomaron las medidas adecuadas, lo que trajo consigo 31 muertes directas y forzó al gobierno de la Unión Soviética a la evacuación repentina de 116 000 personas provocando una alarma internacional al detectarse radiactividad en al menos 13 países de Europa central y oriental.

Autores:

Álvaro Molina

Carlos Alemany

NIGHTMARES,

A nightmare is a dream occurring during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep that results in feelings of strong terror, fear, stress or extreme anxiety. They become so intense they will wake you up. Bad dreams, on the other hand, are especially haunted by interpersonal conflicts

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Most nightmares may be a normal reaction to stress but they are considered  a sleeping disorder when they occur frequently  and may cause the subject further fear of sleeping, which can lead to sleep deprivation and the formation of other sleeping disorders or medical or psychological conditions.

The source of a recurring nightmare may be a traumatic event. For example, returning soldiers sometimes,  they see in their dreams scenes that marked them.

Nightmares are different from sleep terrors in that they are similar to a regular dream involving images and sound, but the images often invoke fear or anxiety in the subject. Sleep terrors contain no imagery or sound, just an overwhelming sense of unshakable fear, and may also be accompanied by temporary sleep paralysis. Nightmares are only considered as such when they cause an immediate awakening from sleep, which usually occurs at the climax, or extreme point of terror of the nightmare.

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Scientific research shows that nightmares may have many causes. In a study focusin

g on children, researchers were able to conclude that nightmares directly correlate with the stress in the children’s lives. Children who experienced the death

of a family member or a close friend or know someone with a chronic illness have more frequent nightmares than those who are only faced with stress from school or stress from social aspects of daily life.

Nobody likes having violent or scary dreams, these night visions may serve an important purpose for your mental health, but  a new video from New York Magazine, “the good side of bad dreams”, explains that some sleep researchers have proposed that bad dreams serve as a form of emotional release, allowing us to let go of the stresses and anxieties that disturb us in our lives.

 

SOURCE:

http://www.psycologytoday.com

http://www.sci-news.com

https://www.sleepassociation.org

 

AUTHOR: Álvaro Molina Crespo

Thanks to: Carlos Alemany Costela

Inside a psycopath’s mind

Most psychopaths neither have Hannibal Lecter’s brilliant mind or they don´t try to killtheir family with an ax such as Jack Nicholson in “The Shining”. For example, Lecter’s character only illustrates one of the mysteries of psychopathy: they can Resultado de imagen de psicopatiabe socially clever if they want to. Most murderers act pushed by a passion, and later they feel guilty about what they have done, but a psychopath doesn´t feel remorse.

So far, the dominant understanding of psychopathy was that they basically lack emotions such as fear or distress. If you clap your hands behind someResultado de imagen de psicopatiaone’s back, she will startle, and you can measure how her palms get sweaty. If you do that with individuals with psychopathy, experiments have shown that their response is flattened. They barely startle and their hands stay dry. Now, think about it, if you had never felt real fear or distress or any other emotion, how could you empathize with the emotions of others?

Empathy is the key to our normal moral development. Each time we hurt someone, that person’s pain becomes our pain, and then you start to associate your pain with hurting others. As kids, we were bewared to don’t hurt others. Kipsicopatads quickly come to feel very different about violating this type of rules. Empathy is what makes the difference.

If you were to lack empathy, this would never happen. Hurting others would leave you indifferent, and be as trivial as eating with your mouth full . In that case, the only reason for doing neither would be fear of punishment – not guilt or compassion. If an unempathic man would be alone in a dark alley with a beautifull and attractive woman and no one to punish him, what would stand in the way of his lust?

How can psychopathic individuals switch their empathy ” on and off ”? All of us have such a switch. We are more empathic towards the pain of our friends, than towards the misery of the people on the other side of the globe. Our default mode, however, seems to have our empathy on. Individuals with psychopathy seem to have a slightly different switch: their default mode seems to be off. But much still needs to be understood about why and how individuals with psychopathy seem to have the potential to empathize sometimes but have this capacity switched off by default. For therapists, they already seem capable of empathy. Instead, therapies may need to learn to be empathic always. How to do so is unclear, but it might be best to start such training early, before violence has become a way of life.

Source:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-empathic-brain/201307/inside-the-mind-psychopath-empathic-not-always

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/antisocial-personality-disorder/psychopathy-and-antisocial-personality-disorder-case-diagnostic-confusion

By: Álvaro Molina Crespo

Thanks to: Carlos Alemany Costela